The summary paper presents the current state of scientific knowledge of hate speech online and focuses on effect and counter strategies. Most available suggestions and resources are valuable experience-based observations by activists involved in anti-hate-speech projects, rather than by scientists. The Summary by Katazyna Bojarska delivers an elaborated picture of the current scientific researches on counterspeech and hatespeech. The Summary is part of our Democratic Meme Project and valuable for everyone dealing with the topic in depth – available in English as well as German.
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